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Design and Operation of an Urban Electric Courier Cargo Bike System
"In this paper, we present a project in Munich, Germany, where the last mile package delivery is carried out by a CEP company by cargo bikes and eBikes. To this end, two containers and one truck-trailer are placed in the city center which function as depot stations for the parcels to be delivered nearby. We analyze the delivery data, present an optimization scheme for finding suitable container locations, and simulate the routes conducted by cargo bikes for an average day. It can be concluded that the presented approach is a feasible solution for the package delivery in densely populated cities. The vehicle mileage covered by diesel trucks per day is significantly reduced from 180 km to 45 km, approximately."
"Delivery from depot containers to customers with cargo bikes is a reasonable alternative considering the average distances covered by bike, even though the practical container locations have to fulfill many constraints and are hence not mathematically optimal."
"The success rate of delivery attempts is much higher with commercial customers. This is easy to understand, as the packages are delivered during the day when shops and businesses are open but private recipients are not at home." Some private deliveries can be made without anyone home anyways, but only 5% of commercial delivery attempts fail and 16% of private delivery attempts fail.
Container distribution sites are being optimized for better routes but delivery trucks are then not at full capacity. Electric trucks and e-cargo bikes help to mitigate the CO2 emissions that are being excessively created.
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