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Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Positive or Negative?
This paper synthesizes and reviews all literature regarding autonomous vehicles and their impact on GHG emissions. The paper aims to eliminate bias and provide insight by incorporating statistical analysis.
The positive impacts represented in AVs’ possibility to reduce GHG emission can be attributed to some factors, including eco-driving, eco traffic signal, platooning, and less hunting for parking. The result shows that eco-driving and platooning have the most significant contribution to reducing GHG emissions by 35%.
The increase in vehicle mile travel (VMT) due to (i) modal shift to AVs by captive passengers, including elderly and disabled people and (ii) easier travel compared to other modes will contribute to raising the GHG emissions. On the other side, easier travel and faster travel significantly contribute to the increase of GHG emissions by 41.24%.
Study findings reveal that the positive emission changes may not be realized at a lower AV penetration rate, where the maximum emission reduction might take place within 60–80% of AV penetration into the network.
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