Compact Development without Transit: Life-Cycle GHG Emissions from Four Variations of Residential Density in Vancouver

Compact Development without Transit: Life-Cycle GHG Emissions from Four Variations of Residential Density in Vancouver

"This paper builds on the growing scholarship on neighbourhood-level GHG production by combining emissions calculations from embodied energy, building-operating energy, and transportation energy, examining four variations of residential density."

Key findings

Residents outside of Vancouver showed higher VKT despite living in walkable communities or near employment.

The large single-family homes of East Clayton generated the largest quantity of GHGs from operating energy per dwelling and was sourced through natural gas for heating.

"The highest density neighbourhoods have the lowest per capita emissions and the lowest density neighbourhoods have the highest emissions."

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